(a) Flat files. A flat file is rectangular in cross section and is
slightly tapered toward the point in both width and thickness and has double-cut
teeth. Both edges are cut.
(b) Hand files. A hand file is similar to a flat file, but is of uniform
width and tapers in thickness only. It is double cut with one safe or uncut edge.
(c) Square files. A square file tapers slightly toward the point on all
four sides and is double cut.
(d) Round files. A round file tapers slightly toward the point. The
bastard cut files, 6 inches and longer, are double cut, The second cut round files,
12 inches and longer, are double cut. All others are single cut.
(e) Half-round files. A half-round file tapers toward the point in
widths and thickness. The flat sides of all half-round files are double cut and
are graded in coarseness like flat files. The round backs of all coarse and
bastard half-round files are double cut. The backs of files longer than 6 inches
are double cut, while the backs of 4-and 6-inch files are single cut.
(f) Mill files. A mill file is usually single cut and is tapered in
width and thickness for about a third of its length.
(g) Pillar files. A regular or an extra narrow pillar file is similar
to a hand file only it is narrower. Pillar files are double cut with one safe or
uncut edge. Pillar files are of the same coarseness as square files of
(h) Triangular files. The taper file tapers toward the point, is usually
single cut, and has edges that are set and cut for filing the gullet between saw
teeth. The blunt handsaw file is of uniform width and thickness and its teeth are
similar to those of the taper file. The three-sided file tapers toward the point,
is double cut, and has fairly sharp corners.
(i) Knife files.
A knife file is shaped like a knife blade and is
double cut on both faces.
(j) Flat float files. Flat float files are slightly tapered in width and
thickness and have a coarse cut.
(k) Curved tooth files. The curved tooth file has single cut, curved
milled teeth, and is sometimes called a vixen or body file.
(1) Special crosscut saw files.
The special crosscut saw file is single
cut and of uniform width and thickness.
(m) Swiss pattern files. Swiss pattern files (fig 36) are small and
delicate. The tang is shaped into a handle. They are most often used for fitting
parts of delicate mechanisms, for filing work in instruments, and tool and die
work. They are made in seven cuts--00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. They are usually
supplied in sets of 8 or 12 assorted files in a box although individual files are
issued. The handles are knurled for a better grip. The Swiss pattern files are
designed in 12 different shapes.