LATHE OPERATIONS - OD1645 - LESSON 1/TASK 1
Essential Features of The Lathe.
To learn the operation of the lathe, one must first be
general function even though the design may differ among manufacturers.
Figure 4 on the following page provides a general illustration of the parts
normally found on a lathe. For specific details on a given lathe, refer to
the manufacturer's technical manual for that machine.
(2) Bed and Ways. The bed is the base for the working parts of the lathe.
The main feature of the bed is the ways which are formed on the bed's upper
surface and which run the full length of the lathe.
The tailstock and
carriage slide on the ways in alignment with the headstock. The headstock
is normally permanently bolted at one end (at the operator's left).
(a) The ways are accurately machined parallel to the axis of the spindle
and to each other. The V-ways are guides that allow the carriage and the
tailstock to move over them only in their longitudinal direction. The flat
way takes most of the downward thrust. The carriage slides on the outboard
V-ways which, because they are parallel to the V-ways, keep the carriage in
alignment with the headstock and tailstock at all times.
This is an
absolute necessity if accurate lathe work is to be done. Some lathe beds
have two V-ways and two flat ways, while others have four V-ways.
(b) For satisfactory performance of a lathe, the ways must be kept in
good condition. A common fault of careless machinists is to use the bed as
an anvil for driving arbors or as a shelf for hammers, wrenches, and chucks.
Never allow anything to strike the ways or damage their finished surfaces in
any way. Keep them free of chips. Wipe them off daily with an oiled cloth
to help preserve their polished surface.
(a) The headstock carries the head spindle and the mechanism for driving
In the belt-driven type headstock, the driving mechanism consists
merely of a cone pulley that drives the spindle