LATHE OPERATIONS - OD1645 - LESSON 1/TASK 1
in some crude fashion or another. However, because of advanced technology,
the lathe has allowed man to become an important asset in developing and
machining many precision components needed to operate and function in many
areas of our industrial complex.
Lathes Types and Uses.
The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping
articles of metal, wood, or other material. All lathes, except the vertical
the workpiece is held and rotated around a horizontal axis while being
formed to size and shape by a cutting tool. The cutter bit is held either
by hand or by a mechanical holder, then applied to the workpiece. Principal
capabilities of the lathe are forming straight, tapered, or irregularly
outlined cylinders, facing or radial turning cylindrical sections, cutting
screw threads, and boring or enlarging internal diameters.
lathe provides a variety of rotating speeds and suitable manual and
automatic controls for moving the cutting tool.
b. Types of Lathes.
Lathes can be conveniently classified as engine
lathes, turret lathes, and special purpose lathes.
All engine lathes and
most turret and special purpose lathes have horizontal spindles and, for
that reason, are sometimes referred to as horizontal lathes.
lathes in all classes may be classified as bench lathes or floor or pedestal
lathes, the reference in this case being to the means of support.
(1) General. The engine lathe is intended for general purpose lathe work
and is the usual lathe found in the machine shop. The engine lathe may be
bench or floor mounted; it may be referred to as a toolroom-type lathe, or a
sliding-gap or extension-type lathe. The engine lathe consists mainly of a
headstock, a tailstock, a carriage, and a bed upon which the tailstock and
carriage move. Most engine lathes are back-geared and high torque, which is
required for machining large diameter workpieces and taking heavy cuts. The
usual engine lathe has longitudinal power and crossfeeds for moving the
It has a lead screw with gears to provide various controlled
feeds for cutting